Training and Assessment Research Group


Our aim is to Improve Human Performance within modern complex systems


Click on the block structure or follow this link to learn more about TARG.

Global market dynamics and competitiveness requires the systems to adapt and keep performing in a sustainable way. This requires research on performing efficient and safe operations by investigating the complex interdependency among humans and machines.

The increasing complexity of modern operations have put new demands on human operator that requires new solutions. Such methods and solutions can be achieved by rigorous, collaborative, and state of the art research, which is the core value of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG).

More information

For more information regarding our current research project, InnoTraining, investigating virtual reality applications in training and assessment please visit InnoTraining

For more information regarding our upcoming international workshop on training and assessment follow this link to TARG workshops 




Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news. TARG will constantly develop and improve their work. The results will be presented in the news bulletin. Please stop by to read about our work.

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Funding Agency



OpenAR – Framework for augmented reality advanced maritime operations

Research Council of Norway (Competence and Collaboration Project) (NORWAY) /Work package leader

1,169,122 EUR
(11,916,000 NOK)


OPENVR: Next generation virtual reality for human-centered ship design

Research Council of Norway (Innovation Projects for the Industrial Sector) (NORWAY) /Work package leader

656,671 EUR
(6,692,000 NOK)


OpenBridge Design System (ODES)

Research Council of Norway (MAROFF-2) (NORWAY) /Work package leader

1,497,064 EUR
(15,260,000 NOK)


Centre of Excellence in Maritime Simulator Training and Assessment (COAST)

DIKU (Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation and Quality Enhancement in Higher Education) /Scientific Leader

9,000,000 EUR (94,162,000 NOK)


Enhancing Human Performance in Complex Socio-technical Systems (ENHANCE)

EU (Horizon 2020) / Project Coordinator and Leader

1,099,400 EUR 
(10,600,000 NOK)


Investigating seafarer training needs for operating autonomous ships

International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU) / Project Partner

60,000 USD 
(510,000 NOK)


Workshops on Improving Maritime Education, Training and Performance Assessment in Norway

MARKOM2020, Norway / Project Leader

61,600 EUR 
(590,000 NOK)


Development and Research Related to
Shore Control Center for Autonomous Vessels

MARKOM2020, Norway / Project Partner

107,700 EUR 
(1,030,000 NOK)


Workshops on Improving Maritime Education, Training and Performance Assessment in Norway

MARKOM2020, Norway / Project Leader

66,000 EUR 
(630.000 NOK)


Increased Value Creation in the Industry by Utilizing Autonomy in the Society (AUTOSTRIP)

Research Council of Norway / Project Partner

3,080,000 EUR 


PhD Position at Department of Maritime Operations

University of South-Eastern Norway (USN) / 
Project Leader

350,000 EUR 
(3,350,000 NOK)


Human Maritime Autonomy Enable (HUMANE)

Research Council of Norway / Project Partner

1,240,000 EUR 
(12,000,000 NOK)


A Human Centered Assessment to Evolve Autonomous Subsea Operations Via Sensor Fusion

MARKOM2020, Norway / Project Partner

85,000 EUR 
(820,000 NOK)


Innovating Maritime Training Simulators using Virtual and Augmented Reality

Research Council of Norway / Project Leader

1,460,000 EUR 
(14,000,000 NOK)

See a complete list of grants here

Courses we teach


Course plan Description Responsible
 MM-HTO5081 Human - Technology - Organization. Read more

Salman Nazir; Hasan Mahbub Tusher

 MIS415 Extended Reality Technology.  Read more Salman Nazir (Guest Instructor)
 MM-RES4001 Research Methods.  Read more Steven C. Mallam

TARG members


Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG) – led by Professor Salman Nazir – at University of South-Eastern Norway, Department of Maritime Operations (IMA), constitutes of 1 Professor, 2 Associate Professors, 6 PhD researchers and 1 Master student.

TARG staff and members



Salman Nazir

Salman Nazir is a Professor of Training and Assessment at the Department of Maritime Operations (IMA) in the University of South-Eastern Norway (USN), also responsible as the Head of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG). He obtained his Master from Hanyang University, South Korea and a PhD Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI), Italy.SEE MORE


Steven C. Mallam

Steven Mallam is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Technology and Maritime Sciences, University of South-Eastern Norway. He obtained his PhD in Human Factors from Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden) and a Master of Science specializing in work safety and ergonomics from Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada).  SEE MORE.


Gesa Praetorius

 Dr. Gesa Praetorius is an Associate Senior Lecturer in Maritime Science at Linnaeus University in Kalmar and an Adjunct Associate Professor within the Training and Assessment Research Group at University of South-Eastern Norway. SEE MORE. 



Meet all TARG members here

Our Publications

An essential part of our efforts to disseminate our research is to publish our work through academic channels, such as journals, books and more.

All of USN’s and TARG publications are registered in the Current Research Information System in Norway (CRISTIN). 

View our list of publications related to TARG.

All TARG members' publications can be accessed on


Recent publications:

  • Effectiveness of VR Head Mounted Displays in Professional Training: A Systematic Review.

    Renganayagalu, S. K., Mallam, S. C. & Nazir, S. (2021).

    Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

  • Shifting Participatory Design Approaches For Increased Resilience.

    Mallam, S. C., Nordby, K., Haavardtun, P., Nordland, H. & Westerberg, T. V. (2021).

    IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors.

  • A Delphi-AHP study on STCW leadership competence in the age of autonomous maritime operations.

    Kim, T. & Mallam, S. (2020).

    WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 19(2), 163-181.

  • Enhanced accuracy for multi-class mental-workload detection using LSTM for BC.

    Asgher, U., Khalil, K., Khan, M. J., Ahmad, R., Ayaz, Y., Naseer, N., ... & Nazir, S. (2020).

    Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 584.

  • The human element in future Maritime Operations–perceived impact of autonomous shipping.

    Mallam, S. C., Nazir, S., & Sharma, A. (2020).

    Ergonomics, 63(3), 334-345.

  • Performance assessment in full-scale simulators–A case of maritime pilotage operations.

    Ernstsen, J., & Nazir, S. (2020).

    Safety Science, 129, 104775.

  • Framing the FRAM: A literature review on the functional resonance analysis method.

    Patriarca, R., Di Gravio, G., Woltjer, R., Costantino, F., Praetorius, G., Ferreira, P., & Hollnagel, E. (2020).

    Safety Science, 129, 104827.

  • Open user interface architecture for digital multivendor ship bridge systems.

    Nordby, K., Mallam, S. C. & Lützhöft, M. (2019).

    WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 18(2), 297-318.

  • Rethinking Maritime Education, Training, and Operations in the Digital Era : Applications for Emerging immersive Technologies.

    Mallam, S.C., Nazir, S., & Renganayagalu,S.K. (2019) 

    Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(12),428.

  • Incidental Memory Recall in Virtual Reality : An Empirical Investigation.

    Ernstsen,J., Mallam, S.C., & Nazir, S. (2019)

    In proceedings of the Human Factor and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 

  • Situationawareness information equipments for maritime navigation : A goal directed task analysis.

    Sharma, A., Nazir, S., & Ernstsen, J.(2019)

    Safety Science, 120, 745-752

  • Use of evidential reasoning for eliciting bayesian subjective probabilities in human reliability analysis: A maritime

    Yang, Z., Abujaafar, K. M., Qu, Z., Wang, J., Nazir, S. (2019)

    Ocean Engineering

  • Process equipment common attributes for inherently safer sustainable process design at preliminary design stage

    Shariff, A. M., Buang, A., Athar, M., Nazir, S. (2019)

    Process Safety and Environmental Protection

  • Maritime simulator training across Europe: A comparative study

    Nazir, S., Jungefeldt, S., Sharma, A. (2018)

    WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 1-28

  • Consistency in the development of performance assessment methods in the maritime domain.

    Ernstsen, J., & Nazir, S. (2018)

    WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 17(1),71-90




Collaborators and partners











Contact us

Located in the surroundings between Tønsberg and Horten. Modern campus with a broad range of student residences, sports, cultural and social activities.

Big enough to have a pulse, small enough so that you are seen. Over 80 studies that gives you a good combination of theory and practice. Studies leading to a job as a ship's officer, teacher, nurse, accountant or engineer. Designated nightspot on the pier in Tønsberg run by and for students.  Read more

Visiting address
Raveien 215
3184 Borre

Postal address
University of South-Eastern Norway (USN) 
Post box 235
3603 Kongsberg

PO Box address
Box 4, 3199 Borre
Phone : 31 00 80 90

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