OpenBridge Presented at Human Factors in Control Forum


Steven Mallam was an invited guest speaker to the Human Factors in Control (HFC) Forum fall meeting held in Trondheim from October 22nd-23rd. The theme of the two-day meeting was “Managing Maritime Operations through Human Factors”. Steven shared results from the ongoing Research Council of Norway project: OpenBridge, which TARG is partnered with The Oslo School of Architecture and Design and Sintef. His presentation was titled: “Regulations for the design of ship bridges: past, present and future”.


The HFC forum provides a valuable meeting place for industry and academia to interact, present ongoing work and exchange knowledge of Human Factors in complex systems. Steven, OpenBridge and TARG look forward to participating in future HFC events!


For more information on the event, please see:










Salman Nazir is an Associate Professor and Researcher at Norway’s second largest higher education institution: University of South-Eastern Norway (USN), where he works as the Head of Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG) within the Department of Maritime operations. He holds a Master degree in Chemical Engineering from Hanyang University, South Korea and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering (major in System Engineering and Human Factors) from Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI), Italy, where he was awarded with the Cum Laude honor upon receiving his title Doctor of Philosophy in 2014.

Consequently, Salman started working as a Post Doc at POLIMI joining later the University College of Southeast Norway, where he became an Associate Professor in 2015. During his leadership of the Training and Assessment Research Group (TARG), Salman has won several national and international grants from research-leading agencies such as German Academic Exchange Service DAAD, Oslo Fjord Fund and the Research Council of Norway on topics within Training and performance improvement in socio-technical complex systems in the maritime domain.

Salman has recently won a 13MNOK from the Research Council of Norway to develop innovate training simulators for maritime industry by using virtual and augmented reality. The project aims to substantially enhance the performance of maritime operators, contributing to a more efficient, productive and safer maritime industry. Moreover, Salman is the current leader of MARKOM, a project that develops workshops on training and performance assessments which primary objective is to share knowledge and techniques of safety systems within the academia and maritime industry.

As part of his academic contribution, he has authored/co-authored more than 69 peer-reviewed articles on international journals and conferences and presently is co-chair of the 1st International Conference on Human Factors in Management and Leadership for Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE). Similarly, Salman is a member of the scientific boards of International Symposium of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (Sho2016), International Conference on Safety and Environment in the Process & Power Industry (CISAP), and International Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE 2016).

In addition, he is the main lecturer for the course Human Technology Organization within the Master program in Maritime Management at USN, which focuses in Human Factors, Cognitive Systems Engineering and Risk Analysis theories. Salman is a current reviewer of books on Human Factors for CRC-press/Taylor & Francis and has been a speaker in various maritime events within Training and Human factors. His work and research activities have captured the media attention, resulting in interviews to local and national media

Research areas

  • Human Factors in complex systems in maritime industry and process industry
  • Safety in complex systems
  • Training Methods
  • Impact of Training on Performance
  • Safety Training
  • Performance and Competence Management
  • Quantitative Risk Analysis
  • Automated Performance Assessment
  • Systems Safety
  • Situation Awareness (SA)
  • Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA)
  • Abnormal Situation Management
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • Operator performance indicators (OPIs)
  • Design of Experiment
  • Virtual and Augmented Virtual Environments
  • Multi-criteria decision making (Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP))
  • Industrial Accidents and their Mitigation
  • Immersive Environment, Spatial Learning
  • Human Reliability Analysis
  • Maritime Management and Leadership
  • Cultural differences in maritime domain

Link to CRISTIN database

Research Gate

Publications 2018

Maritime simulator training across Europe: A comparative study

Nazir, S., Jungefeldt, S., Sharma, A. (2018)

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 1-28

Consistency in the development of performance assessment methods in the maritime domain.

Ernstsen, J., & Nazir, S. (2018) 

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 17(1),71-90

Simulator Training for Maritime Complex Tasks: An Experimental Study.

Hjelmervik, K., Nazir, S., & Myhrvold, A. (2018)

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs

The Level of Automation in Emergency Quick Disconnect Decision Making.

Imset, M., Falk, K., Kjørstad, M., & Nazir, S. (2018)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 6(1), 17.

Design of Experiment Comparing Users of Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays and Desktop Computers

Mallam, SC.,, Nazir, S., Renganayagalu, SK., Ernstsen, J., Veie, S.(2018)

Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 240-249

Bayesian Network for Assessing Performance in Complex Navigation – Conceptual Model

Ernstsen, J., Musharraf, Mallam, Nazir, S. & Veitch (2018)

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 1751–1755. 

Bayesian Model of Operator Challenges in Maritime Pilotage. 

Ernstsen, J., Musharraf, & Nazir, S. (2018)

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 62(1), 1813–1817. 


Publications 2017

Shared mental models of challenging maritime situations: Comparisons of ship and shore personnel in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. 

Imset, M., & Øvergård, K. I. (2017). 

TransNav: International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation11.

Advance use of Training Simulator in Maritime Education and Training: A questionnaire study

Nazir, S. & Hjelmervik, K.

Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017). Los Angeles, California, USA, July 17-21, 2017.

Leading for safety. A weighted safety leadership model in shipping.

Kim, T.E. and Gausdal, A.H. (2017).

Reliability Engineering & System Safety 165 (September 2017), 458-466

Motigravity: a new VR system to increase performance and safety in space operations simulation and rehabilitation medicine

Del Mastro A., Schlacht I.L., Benyouce Y., Groemer G. & Nazir S.

Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017). Los Angeles, California, USA, July 17-21, 2017.

Distributed Situation Awareness in pilotage operations: Implications and Challenges.

Sharma, A., & Nazir, S. (2017)

TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 103-107.

Trust and Safety on Board.

Gausdal, A.H. and Makarova, J. (2017).

WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 16(2), 197-217

The multifaceted role of the network orchestrator – a longitudinal study.

Nilsen, E.R. and Gausdal, A.H. (2017)

International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(6).

Towards automated performance assessment for maritime navigation and manoeuvring

Øvergård, K. I., Nazir, S., Solberg, A. S. (2017)

TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 43-48.

Safety Management on the Bridge: Safety Cultural Factors for Crew Member´s Safety Behaviour

Nazir, S. Xiao, X. (In press)

TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation

Human Reliability Analysis of a Pilotage Operation

Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S., Røed, B. K. (In press)

TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation

What’s in it for the firm? Innovation benefits from participating in constructed regional triple-helix networks.

Elvekrok, I., Veflen, N., Nilsen, E.R. and Gausdal, A.H., (2017) Regional studies.

Dynamic Capabilities and Network Benefits.

Svare, H. and Gausdal, A.H. (2017)

Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation 13(1), 117-146.

Gender Bias in the Perception of Outstanding Leadership in the Maritime Industry

Fjærli, B.A.B., Nazir, S. And Øvergård, K.I. (2017)

Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education, pp.359-369, Springer


Publications 2016

Human error and response to alarms in process safety

Mrugalska, B., Nazir, S., Tytyk, E., & Øvergård, K. I. (2016b).

Journal of the Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Medellin Campus, 83, 81.

Use of evidential reasoning for eliciting Bayesian subjective probabilities in human reliability analysis.

Abujaafar, K. M., Qu, Z., Yang, Z., Wang, J., Nazir, S. & Øvergård, K. I. (2016).

SoSE2016 ’SoSe and Cyber Physical Systems, 12-16 June in Kongsberg Norway, (pp. 1-6). IEEE

Why don’t all high-trust networks achieve strong network benefits? A case-based exploration of cooperation in Norwegian SME networks.

Gausdal, A.H., Svare, H. and Möllering, G. Trust, (2016)

Journal of Trust Research. 6(2), 194-212.

Trust-building in networks as practical social learning processes.

Gausdal, A. H. (2016).

In S. Jagd & L. Fuglsang (Eds.), Trust, Organizations and Social Interaction. Studying Trust as Process within and between Organizations. 125-145. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar

How extreme environments can impact the training of industrial operators

Manca, D., Nazir, S., Komulainen, L & Øvergård, K. I. (2016)

Chemical Engineering Transactions, 52, 193-198.

Systemising Performance Indicators in the Assessment of Complex Sociotechnical Systems

Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S. and Manca, D. (2016)

Chemical Engineering Transactions 52, 187-192.

Collaborative Virtual Environment for Training Teams in Emergency Situations

Passos, C., Nazir, S., Mol, A. C. A. and Carvalho, P. V. R. (2016)

Chemical Engineering Transactions 52, 217-222

Human Reliability Analysis of a Pilotage Operation

Ernstsen, J., Nazir, S., Røed, B. K. (In press)

TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation

Towards performance assessment of tomorrows operator.

Nazir, S. and Ernstsen, J. (2016).

Proceeding of the 7th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2016). Walt Disney World, Florida, USA, July 27-31, 2016.

Enhancing the effectiveness of marine engine room simulator-based training.

Nazir, S. and Kim T

Proceedings International Association of Maritime Universities, 2017 in 26 – 29 October 2016, Haiphong, Vietnam

Exploring marine accident causation: A case study.

T., Kim, S. Nazir

Proceedings from International Conference on Occupational Safety and Hygiene SHO 2016 (Manuscript accepted)

A STAMP-based causal analsis of the Korean Sewol Ferry Accident. 

Kim, T. E., S. Nazir,  Øvergård, K. I. (2016).

Safety Science, 83, 93-101.

Assessment team decision-making Assessment team decision-making: One way to assess the multi-criteria decision-making based on observation.

Ferreira R.J., Carvalho P.V.R.D., Nazir, S., Jose O.G.

Proceedings of the ISCRAM 2016 Conference – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 2016

Immersive Virtual Environment or conventional training? Assessing the effectiveness of different training methods on the performance of industrial operators in an accident scenario.

Nazir, S., Gallace, A., Manca, D., & Øvergård, K. I. (2016)

In Carvalho and Azedes (eds.). Ergonomics and Safety Management, (pp. 213-233). Taylor & Francis.

Simulators for transportation human factors: research and practice

Øvergård, K. I., Hontvedt, M., Sorensen, L. J., Smit, P. N. & Nazir, S. (2016)

Maritime Resource Management and Simulator Training. In M. S. Young and M. G. Lenné (eds.) Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education

JI Kantola, T Barath, Nazir, S., T Andre

Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors, Business Management and Society, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, Springer

Virtual reality for safety, entertainment or education: The Mars mission test

Irene Lia Schlachta, Antonio Del Mastro, Nazir, S. (2016).

Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling and Simulation, Springer International Publishing, pp. 75-83

From Virtual Reality to Neutral Buoyancy—Methodologies for Analyzing Walking

Pattern on Moon and Mars

Schlacht, I. L., Foing, B., Benassai, M., Bringeland, S., Deml, B., Del Mastro, A., Masali, M., Micheletti, C. M., Nazir, S., Rittweger, J., Stevenin, H. (2016).

Advances in Safety Management and Human Factors (pp. 387-397): Springer International Publishing.

Perception of Outstanding Leadership for Male and Female Leaders in Maritime Domain.

Fjærli, B. A. B., Nazir, S. and Øvergård, K. I. (2016).

In Kantola, JI, Barath, T., Nazir, S., Andre, T. (eds). Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education (pp. 359-369).